Wednesday, April 3, 2013

How to install and configure Wine                                          Netstat Command in Linux

In last article, we saw basic use of sed command but we can use sed command as like awk as well. In this article, we will overlook the advanced use of sed command in file manipulation operation as well as grouping functionality. Before going to the example if you are new to this post then please go through this link first:

Basic use of Sed command in file manipulation.

Don’t confuse with flags and options, options which we used with hyphen and flags which we use in single quotes. Sed has many flags. Below are the flags which we need in next couple of examples:

Flag
Meaning
Description
g
global
This flag will help to replace pattern in whole file at multiple occurrences
i
Ignore case(present in GNU Sed)
This flag will help to match the pattern ignoring case of pattern.
w filename
Write the output
This flag will help to write the desired output in filename which you have specified.
P
Print the lines
It will help to print the desired output at your screen

Some of the examples for these flags as below:
Flag i:
root@rhel:~/test# cat salary.txt
1001,Ajay,Manager,25000
101,Satish,Founder,30000
302,Atul,CEO,26000
434,Raj,Senior Manager, 26000
1231,Kalyan,Human Resource,20000
root@rhel:~/test#
root@rhel:~/test# sed 's/atul/Raman/i' salary.txt
1001,Ajay,Manager,25000
101,Satish,Founder,30000
302,Raman,CEO,26000
434,Raj,Senior Manager, 26000
1231,Kalyan,Human Resource,20000
root@rhel:~/test#

Flag g: (Replacing “a” by “R” everywhere and with ignoring case of “a”.

root@rhel:~/test# sed 's/a/R/ig' salary.txt
1001,RjRy,MRnRger,25000
101,SRtish,Founder,30000
302,Rtul,CEO,26000
434,RRj,Senior MRnRger, 26000
1231,KRlyRn,HumRn Resource,20000
root@rhel:~/test#

For flag “w” and flag “p”, I have provided examples in this article: Basic use of Sed command infile manipulation.

Let’s go for some advanced examples of sed. 

1.       How to change the substitution delimiter of sed ?

Suppose we want to replace the path (/usr/local/bin/) by some different path (/opt/bin/mysql/) then it is very difficult to suppress the meaning of each “/” in sed. To avoid complexity, we will use different delimiter instead of “/”. So, it is very easy to use any delimiter among these:  “|” or “^” or “@” or “!”.

sed 's|/usr/local/bin|/opt/bin/mysql/|' path.txt
sed 's^/usr/local/bin^/opt/bin/mysql/^' path.txt
sed 's@/usr/local/bin@/opt/bin/mysql/@' path.txt
sed 's!/usr/local/bin!/opt/bin/mysql/!' path.txt

I haven’t provided output there, because for all command’s output will be same.

Recommended Article: Basic Use of Sed command in Linux

2             Use sed command to fetch 1st and 3rd column of data with separator “,”.

root@rhel:~/test# sed 's/\([^,]*\),\([^,]*\),\([^,]*\),\([^,]*\).*/\1, \3/g' salary.txt
1001, Manager
101, Founder
302, CEO
434, Senior Manager
1231, Human Resource
root@rhel:~/test#

sed 's/\([^,]*\),\([^,]*\),\([^,]*\),\([^,]*\).*/\1, \3/g' salary.txt

\([^,]*\) – This is the first Column. First, we removed special meaning of “(“ and then [^,]  “,” separator provided in square brackets. We needed first and third column that’s why we defined 4 column definitions. We can extend it as per our requirement.
Like above example, you can use sed command as like awk or cut command.

3.       GNU sed having some replacement flags as below:

\l
Considers one character in lower case
Sed ‘s/Atul/RA\lMAN/g’
Atul will replace by “RAmAN”
\L
Considers all characters after this flag in lower case
Sed ‘s/Atul/RA\LMAN/g’
“Atul’ will replace by “Raman”
\u
Same as \l i.e. one character consider in upper case
Sed‘s/Atul/ra\uman/g’
“Atul” will replace by “raMan”
\U
Same as \L but it will convert char into upper case
Sed‘s/Atul/ra\Uman/g’
“Atul” will replace by “raMAN”

If we need whole string in upper case then “\U”at beginning of pattern. Ex. /\U ramanDev/ then output pattern will be: “RAMAN DEV” but suppose we want to “RAMAN” only in capital and remained pattern as it is then use “\E” flag after “raman” as like : /\Uraman\E Dev/ its output will be “RAMAN Dev”.

Regular Expression in Sed command
Beginning of Line (^)
The carrot symbol matches at the start of line. Ex. Display lines which starts with 1001

root@ctier:~/test# sed -n '/^1001/p' salary.txt
1001,Ajay,Manager,25000
root@ctier:~/test#

In above example, used –n option to display only commands output otherwise sed displays files content as well as command executed output as well.

End of line ( $)
The dollar symbol $ matches the end of a line. Ex. Display lines which end with the number 20000:

root@ctier:~/test# sed -n '/20000$/p' salary.txt
1231,Kalyan,Human Resource,20000
root@ctier:~/test#

Single Character (.)
The special meta-character dot matches any character except end of line character. “.” Single dot matches single character, “..” double dot character matches two character and so on ..

root@ctier:~/test# sed -n '/1..1/p' salary.txt
1001,Ajay,Manager,25000
1231,Kalyan,Human Resource,20000
root@ctier:~/test#

Zero or more occurrences (*)

This special character “*” matches the zero or more occurrences previous characters.  Ex. ‘/Q*/p’ means – It will matches zero or more “Q”.
This feature useful while finding the error in log file. You can find “Error:  *.” If there are spaces before and after the “Error” keyword then It will find out lines by ignoring the spaces.


Posted by Machindra Dharmadhikari On 4/03/2013 08:44:00 AM 1 comment

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